Core vaccines are recommended for all puppies and dogs with an unknown vaccination history. The diseases involved have significant morbidity and mortality and are widely distributed, and in general, vaccination results in relatively good protection from disease. These include vaccines for canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), and rabies. In addition, the leptospirosis vaccine is now being recommended as a core vaccine for dogs because the disease has the potential to occur in any dog (even in urban environments), can be life-threatening, and the vaccines are considered safe and efficacious, with recent improvements in safety over the last decade to minimize vaccine reactions.
Canine Parvovirus, Distemper Virus, and Adenovirus-2 Vaccines
For initial puppy vaccination (< 16 weeks), one dose of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) CPV, CDV, and CAV-2 is recommended every 3-4 weeks from 6-8 weeks of age, with the final booster being given around 16 weeks of age. For dogs older than 16 weeks of age, two doses of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) CPV, CDV, and CAV-2 given 3-4 weeks apart are recommended. After a booster at 6 months to one year, revaccination is recommended every 3 years thereafter, ideally using a product approved for 3-year administration.
Canine Rabies Virus Vaccines
In accordance with state law, we recommend that puppies receive a single dose of killed rabies vaccine at or after 12 weeks and before 6 months of age. Adult dogs with unknown vaccination history should also receive a single dose of killed rabies vaccine. A booster is required one year later on puppies and all dogs with previous unknown vaccination history and thereafter, rabies vaccination should be performed every 3 years using a vaccine approved for 3-year administration. This is according to state law.
Canine Leptospira Vaccines
This vaccine has a history of controversy due to allergic reactions to the vaccine. In general, Leptospira vaccines have been associated with more severe postvaccinal reactions (acute anaphylaxis) than other vaccines. The recent introduction of vaccines with reduced amounts of foreign protein has reduced this problem. Reaction rates for vaccines containing Leptospira, while higher than those for vaccines that do not contain Leptospira, are still low in incidence (in one study, < 0.6%). Vaccination of dogs that have had previous reactions to Leptospira vaccines should be avoided if possible. Multiple leptospiral serovars are capable of causing disease in dogs, and minimal cross-protection is induced by each serovar. Currently available vaccines do not contain all serovars but do contain the most common ones that cause disease in dogs, and duration of immunity is about 1 year. Leptospirosis is not uncommon in Minnesota dogs both from urban backyards and is reported more frequently today. In addition, the disease can be fatal or have high morbidity, and also has zoonotic potential to people. Therefore, we suggest annual vaccination of all dogs with vaccines containing all four Leptospira serovars (Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Canicola, and Icterohaemorrhagiae). The initial vaccination should be followed by a booster 2-4 weeks later, and the first vaccine is given no earlier than 12 weeks of age.
Canine Non-Core Vaccines
Non-core vaccines are optional vaccines that should be considered in light of the exposure risk of the animal, ie. based on geographic distribution and the lifestyle of the pet. Several of the diseases involved are often self-limiting or respond readily to treatment. Vaccines considered as non-core vaccines are canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine influenza virus H3N8, canine influenza virus H3N2, and Borrelia burgdorferi aka Lyme disease. Vaccination with these vaccines is generally less effective in protecting against disease than vaccination with the core vaccines.
Canine Parainfluenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica
These are both agents associated with 'kennel cough' or canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) in dogs. For Bordetella bronchiseptica, mucosal vaccination with live avirulent bacteria is recommended for dogs expected to board, be shown, or to enter a kennel situation within 6 months of the time of vaccination. We currently stock the intranasal vaccine containing both B. bronchiseptica and CPiV. For puppies and previously unvaccinated dogs, only one dose of this vaccine is required (recommendations differ for the parenteral, killed form of this vaccine). Most boarding kennels require that this vaccine is given within 6 months of boarding; the vaccine should be administered at least one week prior to the anticipated boarding date for maximum effect. Although some kennels require immunization every 6 months, annual booster vaccination with B. bronchiseptica vaccines is considered adequate for protection.
Canine Influenza Virus (CIV)
Canine influenza virus H3N8 emerged in the United States in greyhounds in Florida in 2003. The virus is now enzootic in many dog populations in Colorado, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. The virus causes upper respiratory signs including a cough, nasal discharge, and a low-grade fever followed by recovery. A small percentage of dogs develop more severe signs in association with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Canine influenza virus H3N2 emerged in 2015 in Illinois and has spread to several other states, including California. Several affected dogs have recently (December 2017/January 2018) been identified in the south bay area in Northern California. Disease caused by CIV H3N2 may be slightly more severe than that caused by CIV H3N8, and the virus has affected more dogs in veterinary hospitals and the community (H3N8 has largely remained confined to shelters). Vaccines for both infections are commercially available, including a combination H3N8/H3N2 vaccine. In Northern California, use of the H3N2 vaccine may be warranted for dogs that contact other dogs, such as those that board. Vaccines may reduce clinical signs and virus shedding in dogs infected by CIV. Vaccination may have the potential to interfere with the results of serological testing, which in non-endemic areas are used to assist diagnosis.
Canine Distemper-Measles Combination Vaccine
This vaccine has been used between 4 and 12 weeks of age to protect dogs against distemper in the face of maternal antibodies directed at CDV. Protection occurs within 72 hours of vaccination. It is indicated only for use in households/kennels/shelters where CDV is a recognized problem. Only one dose of the vaccine should be given, after which pups are boostered with the CDV vaccine to minimize the transfer of anti-measles virus maternal antibodies to pups of the next generation. The UC Davis VMTH does not stock this vaccine as situations requiring their use do not arise commonly in our hospital population.
Canine Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) Vaccine
The incidence of Lyme disease in California is currently considered extremely low. Furthermore, use of the vaccine even in endemic areas (such as the east coast of the US) has been controversial because of anecdotal reports of vaccine-associated adverse events. Most infected dogs show no clinical signs, and the majority of dogs contracting Lyme disease respond to treatment with antimicrobials. Furthermore, prophylaxis may be effectively achieved by preventing exposure to the tick vector. If travel to endemic areas (ie the east coast) is anticipated, vaccination could be considered, followed by boosters at intervals in line with the risk of exposure.
Canine Influenza Virus There are two types of influenza virus that have recently shown up in the dog population. These two viruses do not appear to mutant as frequently as the human virus and are not zoonotic to humans but will cause a disease similar to the human flu and can also be mistaken for 'a kennel cough'. Right now the H3N2 is the predominant one seen in Minnesota and surrounding states. Vaccine recommendations are one to give one vaccine followed by second 3-4 weeks later. The vaccine is recommended for dogs that board a lot and are in contact with a lot of other dogs such as doggy day care, dog parks and shows.
Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi
We recommend this vaccine to dogs that come in contact with ticks even on an infrequent basis. This disease is very common in our area and if your dog is exposed to wooded areas or areas with tall grass there is a risk of coming into contact with deer ticks that carry this disease. Between 20-50% of deer ticks in this area can carry this disease. Although the vaccine is generally not 100% the vaccine and good tick control methods effectively greatly reduce the risk of contracting Lyme disease. This vaccine is given initially after 9 weeks of age and followed up by a booster 3-4 weeks later.
All Pets Veterinary Hospital & Equine Service
25929 2nd Street East
Zimmerman, MN 55398
For general information, questions, appointment requests, call us at:
Email Us: firstname.lastname@example.org
In case of Emergencies:
Anoka Equine at 763-441-3797
Affiliated Emergency Veterinary Services in St. Cloud at 320-258-3481
Blue Pearl in Blaine at 763-754-5000
Monday 9:00am - 7:00pm
Tuesday 9:00am - 7:00pm
Wednesday 7:00am - 5:00pm
Thursday 9:00am - 7:00pm
Friday 9:00am - 5:00pm
Saturday 9:00am - 1:00pm